Kushandisa Kwakakodzera Makemikari Fetiraiza

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Makemikari fetiraiza ari kugadzirwa zvakagadzirwa kubva kuzvinhu zvisina kujairika, zvinhu zvinopa zvinhu zvinovaka muviri zvekukura kwezvirimwa nemaitiro epanyama kana emakemikari.

Iyo Nutrients yeChemical Fertilizers

Makemikari mafetiraiza akapfuma muzvinhu zvitatu zvakakosha zvinovaka muviri zvinodiwa mukukura kwezvirimwa. Mhando dzefetiraiza dziri mumhando huru. Mimwe mienzaniso yemakemikari manyowa ndea ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium chloride nezvimwe.

Chii chinonzi NPK Fertilizers?

☆ Nitrogen fetiraiza
Midzi yemiti inogona kutora nitrogen fetiraiza. Nitrogen ndicho chikamu chikuru cheprotein (kusanganisira mamwe enzyme uye coenzyme), nucleic acid uye phospholipids. Izvo zvakakosha zvikamu zvepropoplasm, nucleus uye biofilm, iyo ine basa rakakosha mukudyara zviitiko zvakakosha. Nitrogen chinhu chinoumba chlorophyll, saka ine hukama hwepedyo nefotosinthesisi. Huwandu hwenitrogen hunokanganisa zvakananga kupatsanurwa kwesero uye kukura. Naizvozvo, kuisirwa nitrogen fetiraiza kunodiwa zvakanyanya. Urea, ammonium nitrate uye ammonium sulfate zvinowanzo shandiswa mukurima.

☆ Phosphatic fetiraiza
Phosphorus inogona kusimudzira kukura kwemidzi, maruva, mhodzi nemichero. Phosphorus inobatanidzwa mune dzakasiyana siyana metabolic maitiro. Phosphorus yakafuma mune meristems, iyo iine zvibereko zvehupenyu zviitiko. Naizvozvo, kuiswa kwe fetiraiza yaP kunokanganisa mugadharira, bazi pamwe nekukura kwemidzi. Phosphorus inosimudzira kushandurwa uye kutakurwa kwemakabohydrate, zvichigonesa kukura kwembeu, midzi uye tubers. Inogona kuwedzera zvakanyanya goho rezvirimwa.

☆ Potassic fetiraiza
Potassic fetiraiza inoshandiswa mukumhanyisa kukura kwesinde, kufamba kwemvura uye kusimudzira kwemaruva uye kubereka. Potassium (K) iri muchimiro cheion muzvirimwa, iyo inotarisa pazvinhu zvinobudirira kwazvo muhupenyu hwemuti, senge nzvimbo inokura, cambium nemashizha, nezvimwewo. Potassium inosimudzira synthesis yeprotein, inobatsira kufambisa shuga uye inovimbisa maseru kutora mvura.

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Kubatsirwa kubva kumakemikari manyowa

Makemikari manyowa anobatsira zvirimwa kukura
Izvo zvine imwechete kana yakawanda yeakakosha ekukura zvinovaka muviri senge nitrogen, phosphorus, uye potasium nezvimwe zvakasiyana. Kana dzangowedzerwa muvhu, zvinovaka muviri izvi zvinozadzisa zvinodiwa nemiti uye zvinovawanisa zvinovaka muviri izvo zvavange vasina kana kuvabatsira kuchengetedza mishonga yakarasika. Makemikari fetiraiza anopa chaiwo mafomati eNPK kuitira kurapa ivhu-risina kukwana ivhu uye zvinomera.

Makemikari manyowa ari akadhura pane manyowa mafetiraiza
Makemikari mafetiraiza anodhura zvakanyanya kushomeka pane manyowa mafotiraiza. Kune rimwe divi, kuona kubva kune organic manyowa yekugadzira maitiro. Hazvina kuoma kuona zvikonzero nei mafotereza echirima ari kudhura: kudiwa kwekukohwa zvinhu zvekushandisa mumafetiraiza, uye nemitengo yakakwira yekuve yakasimbiswa organic nehurumende anomiririra masangano.
Kune rimwe divi, mafetiraiza emakemikari anoshanduka ave akadhura nekuti anorongedza zvinovaka muviri pondo yehuremu, nepo mamwe manyowa mafotereza achidikanwa padanho rakaenzana rezvemuviri. Mumwe anoda mapaundi akati wandei e fetiraiza kuti ape ivhu rakaenzana reutanho rinopihwa pondo imwe chete yemakemikari manyowa. Izvo zvikonzero zviviri zvinokanganisa zvakananga kushandiswa kwemakemikari fetiraiza uye organic fetiraiza. Dzimwe nhoroondo dzinoti musika weFertilizer weUS ungangosvika madhora makumi mana emabhiriyoni ayo mafotereza anogara anosvika madhora zviuru makumi matanhatu chete. Chasara zvacho chikamu chemafetireza ekugadzira akasiyana siyana.

Kupa chikafu chiriporipocho
Iko kupihwa kwekukurumidza kudya uye kudzikira kwekutenga mitengo kwakakurisa zvakanyanya inorganic mafetiraiza. Makemikari fetiraiza ave chinhu chinowanda mumapurazi mazhinji, mayadhi uye mapindu, uye inogona kuve chinhu chakakosha chetsika yakanaka yekutarisira patsangadzi. Nekudaro, ko mushonga wemakemikari haukuvadze ivhu nemiti here? Hapana here chero zvinhu zvinoda kucherechedzwa mukushandisa kwemakemikari manyowa? Mhinduro yacho zvachose haina!

Zvakatipoteredza Mhedzisiro yekushandisa Synthetic Fertilizers

Kusvibisa kune pasi pevhu sosi
Mamwe emakomponi ekugadzira anoshandiswa kugadzira mafetiraiza emakemikari anogona kuve nemhedzisiro yakaipa kana ichibvumidzwa kumhanyira kunzvimbo dzinowanikwa mvura. Nitrogen inoyerera ichienda pamusoro pemvura nepasirandi inoverengera 51% yezviitwa zvevanhu. Ammonia nitrogen uye nitrate ndizvo zvakanyanya kusvibisa nzizi nemadhamu, izvo zvinotungamira kune eutrophication uye pasi pevhu kusvibiswa.

Kuparadza mamiriro evhu
● Nekushandisa kwenguva yakareba uye yakakura kushandisa fotereza yemakemikari, zvimwe zvinetswa zvemamiriro ekunze zvichaonekwa, senge iine acidification yevhu uye nekukura. Nekuda kwekushandisa huwandu hwenitrogen fetiraiza, pachinzvimbo chemanyowa yemanyowa, imwe nzvimbo yekurima inopisa iri muvhu rakaomarara, zvichizopedzisira zvarasa kukosha kwekurima. Mhedzisiro yemakemikari manyowa pane ivhu akakura uye haachinjiki.

● Kushandiswa kwenguva yakareba kwefetireza yemakemikari kunogona kuchinja ivhu pH, kukanganisa zvinobatsira hutachiona, kuwedzera tupukanana, uye kutobatsira mukuburitswa kwemweya wegreenhouse.
● Mhando dzakawanda dzefetiraiza isingaumbike ine acid yakawanda, izvo zvinowanzo wedzera kuwanda kwevhu, nokudaro zvichideredza zvipuka zvinobatsira uye kutadzisa kukura kwezvirimwa. Nekugumburisa iyi ecosystem, kushandiswa kwenguva refu kweyakagadzirwa manyowa kunogona kupedzisira kwatungamira mukusaenzana kwemakemikari mumiti inogamuchira.
● Kudzokororwa kakawanda kunogona kukonzera kuwanda kwemakemikari akadai searsenic, cadmium, uye uranium muvhu. Aya makemikari ane chepfu anogona kupedzisira apinda mumichero nemiriwo yako.

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Kuva neruzivo rwakakwana nezvekushandisa fetereza kunogona kudzivirira marara asina basa mukutenga mafetiraiza uye kuwedzera goho rezvirimwa.

Kusarudza fetiraiza zvichienderana nehunhu hwevhu

Usati watenga fetiraiza, unofanirwa kunyatsoziva ivhu pH. Kana iyo ivhu iri wour, isu tinogona kuwedzera kushandiswa kwe organic fetiraiza, chengetedza kudzora kwe nitrogenous uye tigosara huwandu hweiyo phosphatic fetiraiza.

Kushandisa pamwe fetiraiza

Icho chiri cheicho chinhu chekurima kushandisa fetiraiza nefetereza yemakemikari. Zvidzidzo zvakaratidza kuti zvinobatsira kune ivhu rehupenyu hwezvinhu mutero. Nekushandisa kwe organic manyowa uye makemikari mafetiraiza, ivhu rinogadzira zvinhu riri kuvandudza uye kuchinjana kugona kwevhu cation kunatsiridzwa, izvo zvinobatsira kugadzirisa ivhu enzyme chiitiko uye kuwedzera chirimwa chikafu chinotora. Iyo inobatsira kuvandudza mhando yezvirimwa, kuwedzera chikamu chemukati cheprotein, amino acids uye zvimwe zvinovaka muviri, uye kudzikisa nitrate uye nitrite zvemukati mumiriwo nemichero.

Kusarudza nzira chaiyo yekusangana

Mune matekiniki ekudyara uye mamiriro ezvakatipoteredza, iyo nitrate yezvirimwa zvemuriwo nezvirimwa uye mhando dzenitrogen muvhu dzakabatana zvakanyanya. iyo yakakwira huwandu hweiyo nitrogen muvhu, iyo yakakwira nitrate zvirimo mumiriwo, kunyanya munguva yekupedzisira nguva. Naizvozvo, kuiswa kwefetiraiza yemakemikari kunofanirwa kutanga uye kusanyanya. Nitrogenous fetiraiza haina kukodzera kupararira, zvikasadaro zvichikonzera volatilization kana kurasikirwa. Nekuda kwekufamba kwakaderera, phosphatic fetiraiza inofanira kunge iri munzvimbo yakadzika.

Makemikari manyowa anoita kufarira kukuru muzvirimwa zvinokura, nepo zvakare zvine simba rakakura pane zvakatipoteredza.

Kune njodzi yekusvibiswa kwemvura yepasi uye nenyaya dzezvakatipoteredza dzinounzwa nefotereza yemakemikari. Ive neshuwa kuti unzwisise zviri kunyatso kuitika pasi petsoka dzako, kuti iwe ugosarudza yako nekuziva.

Nheyo yekushandisa kemikari fetiraiza

Deredza huwandu hwesanganiswa yemakemikari uye sanganisa nefotereza. Gadzira kuongororwa kwehutano zvinoenderana nemamiriro epasi uye shandisa fetiraiza zvichienderana nezvinodiwa.


Post nguva: Jun-18-2021