Maitiro ekugadzira manyowa manyowa kubva kune chikafu chikafu?

Chikafu chemarara chave chichiwedzera sezvo huwandu hwenyika hwakura uye maguta akura muhukuru. Mamirioni ematani echikafu anokandwa mumarara akapoterera pasirese gore rega. Inenge makumi matatu kubva muzana yezvibereko zvepasi rose, miriwo, zviyo, nyama uye zvakapakurwa chikafu zvinoraswa gore rega. Chikafu chemarara chave dambudziko rakakura rezvakatipoteredza munyika dzese. Hwakakura huwandu hwetsvina yechikafu hunokonzeresa kusvibiswa kwakakomba, uko kunokanganisa mweya, mvura, ivhu uye zvipenyu zvakasiyana. Kune rimwe divi, tsvina yezvikafu inoputsa anaerobicly kuti ibudise magreenhouse gasi senge methane, kabhoni dhayokisaidhi pamwe nezvimwe zvinokuvadza zvinobuda. Chikafu chemarara chinogadzira akaenzana nematani zviuru gumi nemazana matatu emamiriyoni emagesi ekupisa. Tsvina yezvikafu, kune rimwe divi, inokandirwa mumatope anotora maturakiti makuru epasi, achiburitsa gasi rekuzadza ivhu uye guruva rinoyangarara. Kana iyo leachate inogadzirwa panguva yevhu isina kubatwa zvakanaka, inokonzeresa kusvibiswa kwechipiri, kusvibiswa kwevhu uye kusvibiswa kwemvura yepasi.

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 Incination uye landfill zvine zvayakaipira, uye kumwezve kushandiswa kwechikafu tsvina kuchabatsira mukuchengetedza nharaunda uye kuwedzera kushandiswa kwezve zviwanikwa zviwanikwa.

Iyo marara echikafu inogadzirwa sei mu organic fetiraiza.

Zvibereko, miriwo, zvigadzirwa zvemukaka, zviyo, chingwa, kofi nzvimbo, mazai emazai, nyama nemapepanhau anogona kuve manyowa. Chikafu chemarara chinhu chakasarudzika chinomisa manyowa icho chiri chikuru sosi yezvinhu zvakasikwa. Chikafu chemarara chinosanganisira akasiyana makemikari zvinhu, senge starch, cellulose, protein lipids uye inorganic salt, uye N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, K zvimwe zvinoteedzera zvinhu. Chikafu chemarara chine biodegradable yakanaka, inogona kusvika 85%. Iine hunhu hwehuwandu hwehukama hwehukama, hunyoro hwakanyanya uye huwandu hwakawanda hwezvinhu zvinovaka muviri, uye ine yakanakisa yekudzokorora kukosha. Nekuti marara echikafu ane hunhu hwehunyoro hwakadzika uye chimiro chepasi chakadzikira, zvakakosha kusanganisa tsvina yekudya neyekuzadza mumiriri, iyo inotora mwando wakawandisa uye inowedzera chimiro kusanganisa.

Chikafu chemarara chine huwandu hwakawanda hwezvinhu zvakasikwa, ine crude protein yekuverengera 15% - 23%, mafuta e17% - 24%, zvicherwa zve3% - 5%, Ca ye54%, sodium chloride ye3% - 4% etc.

Maitiro tekinoroji nemidziyo inoenderana yekushandura marara echikafu kuita fetereza.

Zvinonyatso kuzivikanwa kuti yakaderera mashandisirwo mwero we landfill zviwanikwa zvinokonzeresa kusvibiswa kune zvakatipoteredza. Parizvino, dzimwe nyika dzakasimukira dzakagadzira nzira yakanaka yekurapa tsvina. MuGerman, semuenzaniso, tsvina yezvikafu inorapwa zvakanyanya kuburikidza nekuisa kompositi uye kuvhenekesa kweanaerobic, ichigadzira ingangoita mamirioni mashanu ematani efotereza kubva kune tsvina yezvokudya gore rega. Nekuisa mupfudze wezvikafu muUK, angangoita mamirioni makumi maviri ematani emweya CO2 anogona kudzikiswa gore rega rega. Composting inoshandiswa mune angangoita 95% emaguta eUS. Composting inogona kuunza akasiyana mabhenefiti ezvakatipoteredza, kusanganisira kudzikisira kusvibiswa kwemvura, uye mabhenefiti ezvehupfumi anoverengeka.

♦ Kupererwa nemvura mumuviri

Mvura ndicho chikamu chekutanga chemarara echikafu chakaverengerwa 70% -90%, inova hwaro hwekuparara kwemarara echikafu. Naizvozvo, kupera mvura mumuviri ndicho chikamu chakakosha kwazvo mukushandurwa kwemarara echikafu kuita fetereza.

Chikafu chemarara pre-kurapwa chinhanho chekutanga pakurapa tsvina yezvikafu. Inonyanya kusanganisira Dewatering Systemà Feeding Systemà otomatiki Sorting Systemà Solid-Liquid separatorà Oiri-Mvura Separatorà In-mudziyo mukomputa. Iko kuyerera kwekutanga kunogona kukamurwa mumatanho anotevera:

1. Tsvina yezvikafu inofanira kutanga yatadza mvura nekuti ine mvura yakawandisa.

2. Kubvisa marara zvisina kujairika kubva mumarara echikafu, senge simbi, huni, mapurasitiki, bepa, machira, nezvimwe, kuburikidza nekugadzirisa.

3. Tsvina yezvokudya inorongedzwa uye inopihwa muchipenga mhando yakasimba-mvura yekuparadzanisa yekupwanya, kupera mvura uye kupera.

4. Matinji akasvinwa echikafu akaomeswa uye akaomeswa patembiricha yakakwira kuti abvise hunyoro hwakawandisa uye akasiyana siyana epathogenic. Iyo yakapfava uye kuoma kwechikafu chemarara chinodiwa kuti kompositi ibudirire, uye marara echikafu anogona kutumirwa mumudziyo wemidziyo - zvakananga kuburikidza nebhandi rinotakura.

5. Mvura inobviswa mutsvina yezvokudya musanganiswa wemafuta nemvura, inopatsanurwa neparadzanisa yemafuta-yemvura. Mafuta akapatsanurwa anoshandiswa zvakadzama kuti awane biodiesel kana maindasitiri oiri.

Chikafu chese chikafu chekurasa marara chine zvakanakira kuburitsa zvakakwira, kushanda kwakachengeteka, mutengo wakaderera uye ipfupi yekugadzira kutenderera.

♦ Kompositi

Fermentation tangi imhando yetangi yakazara yakavharirwa inoshandisa tembiricha yepamusoro yeerobic Fermentation tekinoroji, iyo inotsiva iyo yechinyakare stacking composting tekinoroji. Iyo yakavharwa yepamusoro tembiricha uye yekukurumidza kompositi maitiro mutangi inogadzira yemhando yepamusoro manyowa, ayo anogona kudzorwa zvakanyatsonaka uye kugadzikana.

Mu-mudziyo composting yakasungirirwa, uye kudzora tembiricha ndicho chinhu chakakosha panguva yekugadzira manyowa. Kukurumidza kuputsika kwezvinhu zviri nyore kudzikisira zvinhu zvehunhu zvinoitwa nekuchengetedza zvakakwana tembiricha mamiriro ezve micro-zvipenyu. Kuzadzikisa tembiricha yakakwira yekusagadzirisa micro-zvipenyu uye mbeu yemasora zvakakosha. Iyo yekuvirisa ikiki-yakatangwa neyechisikigo inoitika zvidiki-zvipenyu mune chikafu chikafu, ivo vanopaza pasi manyowa zvigadzirwa, kuburitsa zvinovaka muviri, kuwedzera tembiricha kusvika 60-70 ° C inodiwa kuuraya utachiona uye mbeu yemasora, uye kusangana mitemo yekugadzirisa tsvina. Mu-mudziyo composting ine inokurumidza kuora nguva, iyo inogona kugadzira manyowa echikafu mumazuva mashoma kana mana. Mushure memazuva 4-7 chete, kompositi yakaburitswa, isina kunhuwirira, yakashambidzwa, uye yakafuma muzvinhu zvakasikwa, uye ine hutano hwakaringana.

Iyi isina hwema, aseptic organic fetiraiza inogadzirwa necomposter haisi kungo chengetedza iyo yekuzadza ivhu kuchengetedza nharaunda, asi zvakare ichaunza zvimwe zvehupfumi.

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 Ulation Kukura

Grunular manyowa tamba yakakosha basa mu fetiraiza nzira dzekupa nyika divi. Chinokosha chekuvandudza gohwo fetereza yemushonga kusarudza yakakodzera organic fetiraiza granulation muchina. Granulation ndiyo nzira yezvinhu zvinogadzirwa kuita zvidiki zvidiki, inowedzera zvinhu zvehunyanzvi zvinhu, inodzivirira kutora uye inowedzera kuyerera zvivakwa, zvinoita kuti ishandiswe yemari diki, inofambisa kurodha, kutakura, nezvimwe. Zvese zvinhu zvakasvibirira zvinogona kuitwa zvakapetwa fetiraiza kuburikidza neyedu organic fetiraiza granulation muchina. Izvo zvinhu granulation mwero inogona kusvika 100%, uye iyo yemanyowa zvemukati inogona kuve yakakwira kusvika ku100%.

Kwekurima kwakakura, saizi yezvikamu inokodzera kushandiswa kwemusika inokosha. Muchina wedu unogona kuburitsa mafotereza ane hukuru hwakasiyana, senge 0.5mm-1.3mm, 1.3mm-3mm, 2mm-5mm.Kukura kwe organic fetiraiza inopa dzimwe nzira dzinoshanda dzekusanganisa zvicherwa kugadzira fetereza yakawanda-yakawanda, inobvumira kuchengeterwa kwakawanda uye kuputirwa, pamwe nekupa nyore kubata nekuisa. Granular organic manyowa ari nyore kushandisa, akasununguka kubva kunhuhwirira kusingafadzi, mbeu yemasora, uye utachiona, uye kuumbwa kwavo kunozivikanwa. Mukuenzanisa nemupfudze wemhuka, iwo ane 4.3 akapeta nitrogen (N), ka4 phosphorus (P2O5) uye zvakapetwa ka8.2 potasium (K2O). Granular fetiraiza inovandudza kushanda kwevhu nekuwedzera humus mazinga, akawanda ivhu rekugadzira zviratidzo zvinovandudzwa: panyama, kemikari, microbiological ivhu zvivakwa uye mwando, mweya, kupisa hutongi, uye zvakare goho rezvirimwa.

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♦ Yakaoma uye inotonhorera.

Rotary dhiramu kuomesa & kutonhora muchina anowanzo shandiswa pamwechete panguva ye organic fetiraiza yekugadzira mutsara. Izvo zvemvura zvemukati manyowa zvinobviswa, tembiricha yemagirosa yakadzikiswa, ichiwana chinangwa cheiyo sterilization uye deodorization. Matanho maviri anogona kudzikisa kurasikirwa kwevakavaka muviri mumagranules uye nekuvandudza simba rechikamu.

♦ Sieve uye pasuru.

Maitiro ekuvhenekesa kupatsanura iwo asina kufanira granular fetiraiza ayo anopedzwa neiyo Rotary dhiramu yekuongorora muchina. Iyo isina kukodzera granular fetiraiza inotumirwa kunogadziriswazve, ukuwo iyo inokwanisa organic fetiraiza ichaiswa mukatiotomatiki kavha muchina.

Batsirwa nechikafu chemarara fetiraiza

Kushandura marara echikafu kuva fetereza kunogona kugadzira hupfumi pamwe nezvakatipoteredza zvinogona kugadzirisa hutano muvhu uye kubatsira kudzikisa kukosora uye nekuvandudza mhando yemvura. Renewable gasi uye biofuels inogona zvakare kugadzirwa kubva mukushandiswazve chikafu tsvina, izvo zvinogona kubatsira kudzikisa gasi rinodziya emissions uye kutsamira pane zvisaririra mafuta.

Fetiraiza yeupenyu ndiyo zvinovaka muviri zvakanyanya muvhu. Icho chinhu chakanaka chekudya kwemiti, kusanganisira nitrogen, phosphorus, potasium uye micronutrients, izvo zvinodiwa pakukura kwemiti. Izvo hazvigone chete kudzora zvimwe zvinomera tupukanana nezvirwere, asi zvakare kudzikisira kudikanwa kwemhando dzakasiyana dzemanyowa uye makemikari.Yakakwira-mhando manyowa mafotereza ichashandiswa munzvimbo dzakasiyana siyana, kusanganisira kurima, mapurazi emuno uye mumaruva ekuratidzira munzvimbo dzeveruzhinji, izvo zvinounzawo mabhenefiti akanangana nehupfumi kuvarimi.


Post nguva: Jun-18-2021