Maitiro ekudzora mhando ye compost

Mamiriro ekudzora kwe kugadzirwa kwe organic fetiraiza, mukuita, kubatana kwezviitiko zvepanyama uye zvehupenyu mukuita murwi wemanyowa. Kune rimwe divi, mamiriro ekudzora anopindirana uye akabatanidzwa. Kune rimwe divi, mhepo dzakasiyana dzemhepo dzakasanganiswa pamwechete, nekuda kweakasiyana muchimiro uye akasiyana kudzikisira velocity.

● Kudzora hunyoro
Mhute chinhu chakakosha pakuumba manyowa. Mukuita kwemanyowa, manyoro ehukama hwezvinhu zvekutanga zvemanyowa ndeye 40% kusvika 70%, kuitira kuona kufambira mberi kwakanaka kwemanyowa. Unyoro hwakanyatsokodzera ndeye 60-70%. Kukwirira kwakanyanya kana kwakadzika kwazvo kwezvinhu kunogona kukanganisa chiitiko chemaerobiotic microbial kuitira kuti mutemo wemvura uitwe pamberi pekuvira. Kana hunyoro hwezvinhu zviri pasi pe60%, kudziya kunononoka, tembiricha yakaderera uye kuora degree kwakaderera. Unyoro hunopfuura 70%, hune simba pamhepo, iyo inoumba kuveza kweaerobic, kupisa kunononoka uye kuora kwakashata.
Zvidzidzo zvakaratidza kuti kuwedzera mvura mumumvuri murwi kunogona kukurumidza kukura kwe compost uye kugadzikana mumutsara unoshanda. Vhoriyamu yemvura inofanirwa kuramba iri 50-60%. Mhute inofanirwa kuwedzerwa ipapo ichengetedzwa pa40% kusvika 50%, nepo isingafanire kubuda. Mhute inofanirwa kudzorwa pazasi pe30% muzvigadzirwa. Kana hunyoro hwakakwira, hunofanirwa kunge huchiomeswa panopisa 80 ℃.

● Kudzora kwekushisa
Kupisa ndiyo mhedzisiro ye microorganism chiitiko. Iyo inosarudza kudyidzana kwezvinhu. Pakutonhora kwe30 ~ 50 ℃ muchikamu chekutanga chemurwi we compost, mesophile chiitiko chinogona kuburitsa kupisa, zvichikonzera kupisa kwetompositi. Iyo yakakwana tembiricha yaive 55 ~ 60 ℃. Thermophilic microorganisms inogona kukanganisa huwandu hwakawanda hwezvinhu zvakasikwa uye nekukurumidza kupaza cellulose munguva pfupi. Kupisa kwakanyanya ndiyo mamiriro anodikanwa ekuuraya marara ane muchetura, kusanganisira utachiona, mazai ezvipembenene nembeu yesora, nezvimwewo. Pazvinhu zvakajairika, zvinotora mavhiki maviri kusvika matatu kuuraya marara ane njodzi pakupisa kwe55 55, 65 65 kwevhiki rimwe, kana 70 ℃ kwemaawa akati wandei.

Hunyoro hwemukati ndicho chinhu chinokanganisa kupisa kwetompositi. Kunyanyisa hunyoro kunogona kudzikisa komputa tembiricha. Kugadzirisa hunyoro kunoitisa kudziya pane inotevera nhanho yemanyowa. Kupisa kunogona kudzikiswa nekuwedzera hunyoro, kudzivirira tembiricha yakakwira mukuita kwemanyowa.
Composting ndechimwe chinhu chekudzora tembiricha. Composting inogona kudzora tembiricha yezvinhu uye kuwedzera kubuda kwemhepo, kumanikidza mweya kuburikidza nemurwi. Iyi inzira inoshanda yekudzora tembiricha yemagetsi uchishandisacompost Turner muchina. Iyo inoratidzirwa nekushanda kuri nyore, yakaderera mutengo uye yakakwira kuita. Kugadzirisa kuwanda kwe composting inodzora tembiricha uye nguva yetembiricha yakanyanya.

● C / N chiyero kudzora
Kana C / N chiyero chakakodzera, composting inogona kugadzirwa mushe. Kana huwandu hweC / N hwakanyanya kukwirira, nekuda kwekushaya nitrogen uye nharaunda isingakure yekukura, huwandu hwekudzikisira kwemarara emarara hunononoka, zvichikonzera kureba mupfudze nguva. Kana iyo C / N chiyero chiri chakanyanya kuderera, iyo kabhoni inogona kushandiswa zvakazara kushandiswa, yakawandisa senitrogen inorasikirwa mumhando dzeammonia. Izvo hazvikanganisa chete nharaunda asi zvakare zvinoderedza kushanda kweiyo nitrogen fetiraiza. Microbes inoumba microbial protoplasm panguva yekuumba manyowa. Pane pakaoma huremu hwaro, protoplasm ine 50% kabhoni, 5% nitrogen uye 0.25% phosphate. Naizvozvo, vaongorori vanokurudzira kuti yakakodzera C / N yemanyowa ndeye 20-30%.
C / N muyero we organic manyowa unogona kugadziridzwa nekuwedzera zvinhu izvo zvine yakakwira kabhoni kana yakakwira nitrogen. Zvimwe zvinhu, senge mashanga, masora, huni dzakafa nemashizha, zvine tambo, lignin uye pectin. Nekuti yakakwira C / N, inogona kushandiswa senge yakakwira-kabhoni yekuwedzera zvinhu. Nekuda kwehuwandu hwenitrogen, mupfudze wezvipfuyo unogona kushandiswa seyakawedzera-nitrogen zvinowedzera. Semuenzaniso, mupfudze wenguruve une ammonium nitrogen iyo inowanikwa makumi masere muzana ehutachiona, kuitira kuti inyatsosimudzira kukura kwehutachiona uye kubereka uye nekukurumidza kukura kwemumvumbi.Nyowani mhando organic organic fetiraiza granulator yakakodzera chikamu ichi. Kana zvinhu zvekutanga zvapinda mumushini, zvinowedzerwa zvinogona kuwedzerwa zvinoenderana nezvinodiwa zvakasiyana.

● Kufefetedza uye oxygen kuendesa
Icho chinhu chakakosha kuti mupfudze wemanyowa uve nemhepo yakakwana neoksijeni. Basa rayo guru ndere kupa okisijeni inodiwa mukukura kwehutachiona. Kugadzirisa tembiricha yekuita nekudzora kufefetedza kuitira kuti utonge kupisa kwakawanda kwe composting uye nguva yechiitiko. Ipo ichichengetedza yakakwana tembiricha mamiriro, kuwedzera kufefetedza kunogona kubvisa hunyoro. Kufefetedza kwakaringana uye okisijeni kunogona kudzikisa kurasikirwa kwe nitrogen, kugadzirwa kwemalodor uye hunyoro, izvo zviri nyore kuchengetedza zvigadzirwa zvinogadziriswa.

Hunyoro hwe compost hune chekuita ne aeration porosity uye microbial chiitiko, icho chinokanganisa iko oxygen kushandiswa. Icho chinhu chakakosha mune aerobic composting. Inofanirwa kudzora hunyoro uye kufefetedza pahwaro hwehunhu hwezvinhu, kuti uwane kubatana kwemvura neoksijeni. Ipo ichitarisa zvese zviri zviviri, inogona kusimudzira hutachiona kukura uye kubereka uye kugadzirisa mamiriro ekudzora.
Chidzidzo chakaratidza kuti oxygen inoshandiswa inowedzera zvakanyanya pasi pe60 ℃, yakaderera kushandisa yakakwira kupfuura 60 ℃ uye padyo ne zero pamusoro pe70 ℃. Huwandu hwekufefetedza uye oxygen inofanirwa kudzorwa zvinoenderana nechero tembiricha.

● pH inodzora
Iyo pH kukosha inobata iyo yese composting maitiro. Muchikamu chekutanga chekuisa manyowa, pH inokanganisa zviitiko zvebhakitiriya. Semuenzaniso, pH = 6.0 ndiyo muganho poindi yenguruve yakakura uye saw-guruva. Iyo inodzivisa kabhoni dhayokisaidhi uye kupisa kwezera paPH <6.0. Inowedzera nekukurumidza mukabhoni dhayokisaidhi nekupisa chizvarwa paPH> 6. 0. Panguva yekupinda yakanyanya tembiricha chikamu, kusangana kwakabatana kwepamusoro pH uye kupisa kwakanyanya kunotungamira kune volatilization yeammonia. Microbes inodzikira kuita organic acid ine composting, zvichikonzera kudzikiswa kwepH, kusvika pa5 kana zvakadaro. Uyezve inochinja-chinja manyowa acids volatilize nekuda kwekukwira kwetembiricha. Panguva iyi, ammonia, yakasvibiswa nehupenyu, inoita pH kusimuka. Pakupedzisira, inogadzikana padanho repamusoro. Mukupisa kwakanyanya kwe compost, pH kukosha pa7.5 ~ 8.5 inogona kuwana yakanyanya composting chiyero. Kukwirira kwepH kunogona kukonzera volatilization yakawandisa yeammonia, nekudaro inogona kudzikisa iyo pH nekuwedzera alum uye phosphoric acid.

 

Muchidimbu, kudzora mhando yemanyowa haisi nyore. Izvo zviri nyore kune a

imwechete mamiriro. Nekudaro, izvo zvinoshandiswa zvinopindirana kuti zviwane iko kwese optimization ye composting mamiriro, ese maitiro anofanira kubatanidzwa. Kana mamiriro ekudzora akakodzera, composting inogona kugadziriswa zvakanaka. Naizvozvo, yakaisa hwaro hwakasimba hwekugadzira komputa yemhando yepamusoro.


Post nguva: Jun-18-2021